The number of individuals who underwent randomization fell brief of the target sample size because of a delayed begin and slower-than-expected recruitment. However, the 827 individuals were adequate to interpret the full total results of both experimental regimens. Only 27 percent of sufferers included in the altered intention-to-treat analysis had been coinfected with HIV; their median CD4 cell count was 314 per cubic millimeter. 3 Patients coinfected with HIV had been underrepresented therefore, those with low CD4 counts especially. Although the ingestion of drugs during the continuation phase in the control group was supervised by a person other than clinic staff, predefined requirements for adequate adherence to treatment did not differ according to treatment regimen.Mofenson, M.D., Patrick Jean-Philippe, M.D., and Avy Violari, F.C.Paed.: Antiretroviral Treatment for Children with Peripartum Nevirapine Exposure Single-dose nevirapine has turned into a cornerstone of the regimen to prevent perinatal transmission of individual immunodeficiency virus in resource-limited settings, whether it’s used alone or within mixture regimens.1,2 Both simplicity of the routine and the long plasma half-life of the drug contribute to the success of single-dosage nevirapine therapy.3-5 However, the reduced threshold of the drug for the selection of viral resistance results in the development of resistance to non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors in a large proportion of HIV-infected mothers who have received the drug and in children who have been infected with HIV despite prophylaxis.6-9 Resistance to NNRTIs is specially worrisome in resource-limited settings, because so many first-line regimens for maternal and infant antiretroviral therapy currently incorporate an NNRTI drug .10-12 One study involving a small amount of children provides suggested that the outcome are similar with nevirapine-based treatment in infants previously exposed to single-dose nevirapine.11 The performance of nevirapine in comparison with the protease inhibitor lopinavir boosted by ritonavir hasn’t been established in children.